How many grams is one or two in the Republic of China?The reason for the switch was to collect more taxes

2022-05-05 0 By

# Cold stories of history ## Those things in the Republic of China # How many grams is the republic of China?The day before yesterday, I wrote a micro headline about gold in the Republic of China. I found that many people did not know how many grams it was in the period of the Republic of China.Most people know that a jin of the Republic of China is 16, but they think it is used in the old Qing dynasty system, a jin of about 600 grams, about 37 grams.But this is wrong, because although the Nanjing Government has changed the number of grams of jin, one jin has become 500 grams, but it is still 16 liang.In this way, the same “two” unit will be divided into two larger and two smaller.The essence of the Republic of China was to collect more taxes and rent.In the Qing Dynasty, the weights and measures were quite confused. The single unit of “liang” had different standards such as “Kuping Liang”, “Guanping Liang”, “Caoping Liang” and “Sima Liang”. Although they were all about 600 grams per jin and 16 grams per jin, there were actually several grams of difference between them.Although this has caused confusion, it has made it convenient for officials and gentry at all levels to exploit the uneducated people at the bottom of the society.But when paying money to the government, nature cannot fool.Therefore, the Qing government also attempted to unify the weights and measures. In the 52nd year of The Reign of Emperor Kangxi of the Qing Dynasty (1713), the Imperial System Of Laws and Lv Justice and imperial System of Mathematics and Physics Jingyun were formulated to unify the weights and measures.But because of all kinds of interest entanglement, different weights and measures have been throughout the qing Dynasty.It was not until 1908, the 34th year of The Reign of Emperor Guangxu at the end of the Qing Dynasty, three years before the collapse of the Qing Dynasty, that forty Articles of Regulations for The Implementation of Uniform Weights and Measures were published, forming the standardization of construction ruler and Kuping Two.At this time, the regulation of 1 jin is 596.816 grams, a jin is 16 liang, one two is 37.301 grams.From this point of view, the Manchu Dynasty was really thrown 100 blocks away by the first emperor who unified weights and measures.Second, the Beiyang Republic of China followed the Qing system. So, a jin is about 600 grams, and a jin is 16 grams, which has been handed down from the Qing Dynasty.During the Period of the Republic of Beiyang, the government at first tried to follow the old methods and avoid causing confusion among the people.Therefore, from 1912 to 1915, the Beiyang government continued to use the qing dynasty ruler kuping system, that is, 1 jin is about 596.816 grams, one or two 37.301 grams.In fact, it should be said that there is nothing, big countries should have confidence in the system.Now in the United States, for example, everyone is using 1000 grams per kilogram, it has to use 454 grams in pounds.He insisted on using Fahrenheit when others used Celsius.When others use metric tons, he uses American tons.There are a lot of other things like that. Inches, gallons, bushels, ounces are different from the metric system.Although it is a bit troublesome to use, there is no problem from the traditional habit of taking care of the common people.But it was the Republic of China at that time. Where could we have national confidence and system confidence?At that time, many people thought that everything was good in foreign countries. The moon was big and round in foreign countries, and they wished to copy all foreign ones. At that time, some people shouted for the cancellation of Chinese characters and traditional Chinese medicine.So at that time, some officials clamoured to “get closer to the international community”, thinking that the “guan Ping two” of the Chinese people was really inconvenient, so they had to start from scratch and start another one.Therefore, in March of the third year of the Republic of China, the Nationalist government promulgated the “Regulations on Power and Degree”, which defined the system as A and B.The first type adopts the kuping system of the Qing Dynasty, which mainly considers the customs of the people and needs a transitional stage.Using the universal metric system, it can save trouble in foreign trade.Later, the Regulations were revised into the Weight Law, which was published on January 7, 1915, stipulating that in addition to the original ruler kuping system, there was also an additional weight system (namely the International system of units).Fortunately, at that time, the government still had a number of points and was afraid of moving too far, so it made a “parallel” rather than “cancel”.It is well known, however, that the Republic of China is actually two points, the early capital in Beijing, by the Northern warlords take turns in the Northern Republic of China, and the late capital in Nanjing (the war of Resistance against Japan moved to the associate capital of Chongqing), by the old Chiang when the alliance of the new warlords each take a booth of nanjing country house in bulk.Though the nanjing kuomintang only in several provinces, the largest site also is but a sun class “nine provinces and handsome”, but it doesn’t have the ability to unite the country, has ruled the country’s ambitions, it is a group of eye above the top of the “foreign compradors”, often publish some “nationwide system” looks very beauty.For example, in terms of weights and measures, after the National Revolution, the Nanjing Government, which replaced the Beiyang government as its own king, issued a decree, which stipulated that the construction ruler Kuping system should be replaced by the municipal system, thus the construction ruler Kuping system entered history.In article 5 of the Weights and Measures Law of the Republic of China enacted in February 1929 and implemented on January 1, 1930, they said:”The length of the market system is one third of a meter as the city ruler, the weight is one half of a kilogram as the city jin, and the capacity is liter as the city liter. A jin is divided into 16 jin, 1,500 feet as a li, 6,000 square feet as an mu, and the rest are decimal.”At the same time, it also stipulated in article 6, “Two: equal to 1/16 jin, namely ten qian (0.0625 jin)”.So, new weights and measures were invented.At that time, the legal 1 jin was equal to 500 grams, and 16 liang was 1 jin (that is, 1 liang is 31.25 grams).This rule is the reason why I gave you 31.25 grams of gold.To make a long story short, the nanjing Guofu’s regulation, while seemingly fine, has caused a great deal of confusion in practice.This was mainly because the Nanking empire did not control the whole country at all. Only eight or nine provinces listened to him, and the other warlords did not listen — and there was unprecedented confusion of weights and measures.But the “big two in, small two out” of the rich and powerful do more.In the previous big Qing Dynasty, although a jin of many bells, but when used to say little difference.For example, sima jin is about 604.8 grams, and Kuping jin is about 596.816 grams. At best, 8 grams per jin can be cheap, and people can also afford it.However, the Nanjing Government produced 500 grams of small jin, which was nearly 100 grams less, and the uneducated people were exploited.And it’s still 16 grams. Is it 37.301g or 31.25g?Not to mention people didn’t understand it then, there are still people who don’t understand it today.And the biggest benefit that changes like this, be to use small catty (city catty) can collect tax more!During the Period of the Republic of China, most taxes were levied by weight. For example, the tax on salt used to be 3.2 dollars per 100 jin.After the change of the horse scale (large scale) as the city scale, more than 600 grams of a jin into 500 grams of a jin, a large scale of 100 jin into a small scale 127 jin, but the government as before according to the tax of 3.2 yuan per 100 jin, this time and again equals to increase the tax of 27%, greatly increased income.Therefore, the dignitaries of the Republic of China were not ignorant of the fact that their purpose was not to conform to “international standards” at all, but to “increase taxes in disguise” to increase the income of officials and gentry.Five, the present one or two are 50 grams?However, after the founding of the People’s Republic of China, on June 25, 1959, the “Order on the Unified Measurement System” was issued, proposing that “the municipal system should be changed from 16 to 12 catty because it is difficult to convert.”So we have one to two 50 grams in mainland China, and we still use them today.But in fact, this kind of weight and measure of 50 grams is only available in the mainland, not in Hong Kong, Macao and Taiwan.This Taiwan area now uses 600 grams per catty, but don’t get excited, this is actually not a restoration of 596.816 grams of “Great Qing ancestor system”, but the Japanese “Chi Guan method” influence.And going from 500g to 600g is unnecessary, it just adds to the confusion.From this small matter, in fact, you can see the deep penetration of Japan to Taiwan.In addition, Hong Kong and Macao are not the same, the original Hong Kong in 1884 announced the 22 law, a catty of 11⁄3 avoirdupweight (i.e. 3 catty, such as 4 pounds).4*454=1816/3=605.3 grams, a jin 16 two is 605.3/16=37.83125 grams.In fact, this is the retention of British imperialism, based on the “pound” used by the British, not the “Sima liang” of the Qing Dynasty.The current Hong Kong law stipulates that a catty is equal to 1/100th of a Dan or 16 grams, namely 604.78982 grams, nearly one gram less than in the past, or 604.78982/16=37.799364 grams. Macao also followed suit.About this, we can only say that we have taken care of the living habits of Hong Kong and Macao during the decades of colonial rule, which have not changed to today.That’s it. How about a gram or two?There are not understand, do not want to say that xiaobian republic of Gold every two 31.5 grams is wrong friends, leave a message to discuss it.